BASIC TRAFFIC HANDLING SUMMARY

 

VOICE

 

W3YVQ, July 20, 2006, V6.7

In this document:

INTRODUCTION.. 1

1. THE ARRL MESSAGE FORMAT.. 2

MESSAGE CHARACTERS. 2

PREAMBLE. 2

OP NOTES. 3

SERVICE MESSAGES. 3

PRECEDENCES. 3

EXERCISE MESSAGES. 4

HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS. 4

EMAIL ADDRESSES AND URLS, FORMATTING.. 5

TEXT, GROUP DEFINITION, GROUP COUNTING.. 5

ARL, THE ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAM PROWORD.. 5

BLANKS IN ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAMS. 5

2. VOICING THE MESSAGE: 6

ITU PHONETIC ALPHABET.. 6

FRAMES. 6

INTRODUCERS. 7

INTRODUCER SUMMARY.. 9

PREAMBLE VOICING, SPECIAL RULES. 10

OPERATIONAL WORDS. 10

SPELLING.. 11

SENDING SPEED.. 11

MESSAGE VOICING RULE SUMMARY.. 12

SINGLE MESSAGE VOICING EXAMPLE. 13

BOOK VOICING EXAMPLE. 14

BLANKS, USED IN BOOK TRANSMISSION.. 14

JUMPING AHEAD.. 16

FILL REQUESTS. 16

FILL RESPONSES. 16

3. DIRECTED TRAFFIC NETS. 17

ID REQUIREMENTS. 17

CHECKING IN, LISTING TRAFFIC.. 17

TRANSMIT ONLY WITH NCS PERMISSION.. 18

NET DUTIES AND FORMAT.. 18

OTHER MODES, BANDS. 19

4. THE MESSAGE EXCHANGE. 19

MESSAGE EXCHANGE, TWO STATIONS ON AND OFF NET.. 19

RETURNING TO THE NET.. 20

BULLETIN(S) TO MULTIPLE STATIONS, ON AND OFF NET.. 20

BOOK TO MULTIPLE STATIONS, ON AND OFF NET.. 21

5. ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAMS. 21

 

 

INTRODUCTION

This document contains selected excerpts from the ARRL NTS Methods and Practices Guidelines (MPG, PSCM Appendix B). This summary of basic topics is intended to be a ready reference for the essentials of voice traffic handling taught in the local ARES® and NTS operating environments. It is a useful handout or web review to use as a follow-up to class work or practice nets. Mentors are encouraged to use the higher level documentation to build lesson plans for more intensive training in the various methods of efficient traffic net operations and net control duties as well as the integration of the digital modes. Also included here are the Precedences, ARRL Handling Instructions and ARRL Numbered Radiograms often provided to the new amateur radio operator.

 

1. THE ARRL MESSAGE FORMAT

(Prepared for this document. Figures in parentheses are referred to in sections below.):

 

MESSAGE CHARACTERS

·         Letters (caps), Figures and/or Slashes (“/”, slash, slant bar, or diagonal) are permitted when formatting the ARRL Radiogram.

“X”

Substituted for a period in the text (except to end the last sentence - the text may not end with an “X”).

“R”

Substituted for a decimal point in figure groups when the message is formatted, as in 146R67 for 146.67.

·         Other punctuation is spelled out.

“DASH”

The hyphen is not permitted, hence the group “DASH” is used to separate the parts of a 9 digit zip code for example. Hyphen and dash, and all other punctuation, is spelled out in the text where needed.

 

PREAMBLE

(Formatting rules for Preamble parts follow. See also Preamble Voicing, Special Rules.)

(#)

PREAMBLE PART

1

Message Numbers may contain only figures with no leading zeros. Number may be preceded by SVC + space for service messages. See Service Messages.

2

Precedence: Emergency, P, W, or R. May be preceded by “TEST” for exercise messages. See Precedence table, Exercise Messages and Preamble Voicing special rules.

3

Handling Instructions: OPTIONAL. See table of Handling Instructions including the formatting rules at the bottom of the table.

4

Station of Origin: Call sign of the station originating the message - unchanged from origination through delivery.

5

Check:  Number of groups in the text, preceded by ARL + space if ARRL Numbered Radiograms present in the text. No part of the radiogram may be altered except in the case of an error leading to a discrepancy between the check and the actual group count the check may be appended with the corrected value, as in: 12/13, 12/ARL 12.

6

Place of Origin: The location of the person for whom the message is originated, not necessarily the location of the station of origin. When different a “signature op note” may be used as needed to instruct handlers relative to servicing or replies.

7

Time Filed:  OPTIONAL (Time message inserted into the amateur system -seldom used on Routine traffic, often used on Priority traffic to “time stamp” the content.) Unmarked times are assumed to be UTC and must agree with the month and date. If local time is to be used (often done for served agencies) a time zone designator must be added, as in: 1430L, or 1430EST, or 1430EDT, etc., and the month and date must agree. (The time filed is formatted as a single mixed group with no spaces.)

8, 9

Month, Date: The default month and date are UTC. If a local Time Filed is used the month and date must agree with the Time Filed. The Month group is entered as the three letter abbreviation. The Date group is entered as one or two figures with no leading zeros.

 

OP NOTES

10

Address Op Note: Used to include information relative to delivery, etc. Content is generally not delivered to the addressee.

11

Signature Op Note: Used to include information relative to replies or servicing, etc. Content is generally not delivered to the addressee.

 

SERVICE MESSAGES

A service message is sent between stations relative to message handling or delivery. The letters SVC (voiced as “SERVICE”) are placed ahead of the message number. The precedence should be the same as that of the message being serviced. Since they affect timely delivery service messages are generally handled before routine messages. SVC is not a message precedence. Example voicing for a preamble beginning SVC 16 R W1AW…: “number SERVICE ONE SIX ROUTINE WHISKEY ONE ALFA WHISKEY…

 

PRECEDENCES

(See ARRL FSD-3)

EMERGENCY (Spelled out on form.*)
Any message having life and death urgency to any person or group of persons, which is transmitted by Amateur Radio in the absence of regular commercial facilities. This includes official messages of welfare agencies during emergencies requesting supplies, materials or instructions vital to relief of stricken populace in emergency areas. During normal times, it will be very rare. On CW/RTTY, this designation will always be spelled out. When in doubt, do not use it.

PRIORITY (P)
Use abbreviation P on CW/RTTY. This classification is for a) important messages having a specific time limit, b) official messages not covered in the emergency category, c) press dispatches and emergency related traffic not of the utmost urgency, d) notice of death or injury in a disaster area, personal or official.

WELFARE (W)
This classification, abbreviated as W on CW/RTTY, refers to either an inquiry as to the health and welfare of an individual in the disaster area or an advisory from the disaster area that indicates all is well. Welfare traffic is handled only after all emergency and priority traffic is cleared. The Red Cross equivalent to an incoming Welfare message is DWI (Disaster Welfare Inquiry).

ROUTINE (R)
Most traffic in normal times will bear this designation. In disaster situations, traffic labeled Routine (R on CW/RTTY) should be handled last, or not at all when circuits are busy with higher precedence traffic.

Notes: These precedences are not meant to prohibit handling lower level traffic until all higher levels are passed. Common sense dictates handling higher precedence traffic before lower when possible and/or outlets are available.

* EMERGENCY: Emergency is always spelled out in the preamble. Means other than Amateur Radio should be included in the delivery options. EMERGENCY messages have immediate urgency. They should take priority over any other activity and should be passed by the best means available with the cooperation of all stations.

 

EXERCISE MESSAGES

Messages in the ARRL format passed for test and exercise purposes may be given a precedence preceded by the word “TEST”, as in “TEST R”, “TEST P”, “TEST W”, or “TEST EMERGENCY”. It is customary to indicate within the text of such messages the words “TEST MESSAGE” as the first two groups, or “EXERCISE” as the first and last groups of the text. This helps alert listeners to the nature of the content to avoid undue alarm. In some exercises, the life of the message may be terminated when the exercise period is terminated, i.e., any such messages are not handled after the exercise. Consult with the ARES/RACES/NTS group conducting the test to determine if such messages should be filed, handled and delivered afterwards to permit a full evaluation of the exercise.

 

HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS

ARRL RADIOGRAM HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS ("HX-CODES")

HXA__

(Followed by number.) Collect landline delivery authorized by addressee within ____ miles, (if no number in blank, authorization is unlimited). This means that the originating station has obtained authorization from the addressee, through the party originating the message, to call collect when delivering the message.

HXB__

(Followed by number.) Cancel message if not delivered within ____ hours of filing time; service message back to originating station. NOTE: filing time must be included in preamble.

HXC

Report date and time of delivery of the message back to the originating station by service message.

HXD

Report to originating station the identity of station from which received, plus date and time. Report identity of station to which relayed, plus date and time, or if delivered, report date and time and method of delivery (this information is sent by service message to the originating station).

HXE

Delivering station get reply from addressee, originate message back. This reply is sent to the person from whom the original message was received, at the "place of origin", using a full address obtained from the addressee. If an address is not available, a reply can often be successfully routed back to the station of origin since a record is kept of originator's info.

HXF__

(Followed by a number.) Hold delivery until ____ (date). This blank contains the number of the day on which the message should be delivered (even if it is in the following month).

HXG

Delivery by mail or landline toll call not required. If toll call or other expense involved, cancel message and send service message back to originating station.

Compliance with these instructions is mandatory. (See ARRL FSD-218, the "Pink Card")
MORE THAN ONE HX__ CODE MAY BE USED. If more than one code is used they may be combined provided no numbers are to be inserted; otherwise the HX should be repeated, thus: 207 R HXAC W1AW, or, 207 R HXA50 HXC W1AW...
Ed. note: To be consistent with not introducing preamble groups, such multiple codes may be voiced as follows: HXAC: “HOTEL X-RAY ALFA CHARLIE”; HXA50 HXC: “HOTEL X-RAY ALFA FIFE ZERO... HOTEL X-RAY CHARLIE.” The numbers following eligible HX_ codes are expected. In this example the HXA in the first case has the range number intentionally omitted, thus the “C” may be appended. In the second case, where the optional 50 mile range is included, the figures force the separation of the full “HXC”.

 

EMAIL ADDRESSES AND URLS, FORMATTING

When so formatted these addresses may be voiced with the standard protocols. All characters are assumed to be contiguous unless noted otherwise. Groups are counted after formatting.

EMAIL:

john_doe@domain.net - JOHN UNDERSCORE DOE ATSIGN DOMAIN DOT NET

URL:

http://www.arrl.org/ - HTTP COLON SLASH SLASH WWW DOT ARRL DOT ORG SLASH

Also encountered may be:

(~)

TILDE

(%)

PERCENTSIGN

(<)

LESSTHANSIGN

(#)

NUMBERSIGN

(&)

AMPERSAND

(>)

GREATERTHANSIGN

(\)

BACKSLASH

(*)

ASTERISK

 

UPPERCASE [letter(s)]

(-)

DASH

($)

DOLLARSIGN

 

LOWERCASE [letter(s)]

The group SPACE may be used if a space is an integral part of the syntax sequence. Note that a combination such as “#somd” (1 group) becomes NUMBERSIGN SOMD (two groups), voiced “NUMBERSIGN… initials SIERRA OSCAR MIKE DELTA.” All sequences so rewritten as groups should return the original email address, packet address, or URL at the point of delivery.

 

TEXT, GROUP DEFINITION, GROUP COUNTING

The radiogram text is generally 25 words or less using the characters shown above. The occasional text with a few more groups is permissible to avoid splitting the message. Much longer messages may be broken into two or more radiograms (which may be transmitted booked) at a point where each separate part makes sense as a single message to the greatest extent possible.


A group is defined as a series of concatenated letters, figures, and/or slashes, with no intermediate spaces, but with a space on the left and on the right.


The group count for the check is the number of all such individual groups between the “breaks” that frame the text. The “breaks” are not counted in the check.

Examples:

1 GROUP

2 GROUPS

3 GROUPS

THANKYOU

THANK YOU

I THANK YOU

X

555 1234

410 555 1234

JPOLE

J POLE

2M J POLE

146R67

146R67 MHZ

146 DECIMAL 67

11PM

11 PM

11 PM LOCAL

2345EST

2345 EST

1145 PM EST

BACOOEPEOC

BACOOEP EOC

BACO OEP EOC

 

ARL, THE ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAM PROWORD

ARL (in check)

Indicates the presence of one or more ARRL numbered radiogram(s) in the text. The letters ARL precede the Check figures separated by a single space, as in: ARL 12.

ARL (in text)

The separate initial group ARL precedes each ARRL Numbered Radiogram (numbers spelled out) in the text, as in:

ARL FIFTY ARL FIFTY SIX NEW LICENSE

 

BLANKS IN ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAMS

BLANKS

ARL Numbered Radiograms

Some ARRL Numbered Radiograms contain one or more blanks for information to be added by the originator. When formatting the single radiogram the information for the blank(s) follows the ARRL Radiogram number(s), as in ARL FIFTY THREE LETTER …, or

ARL FORTY SEVEN 305 W1AW MAR 15 2330 …

 

 

2. VOICING THE MESSAGE:

Voicing protocols are intended to help avoid errors inherent in speech perception, to help ensure the receiving operator knows what the sending operator is doing at all times and to help ensure the highest possible degree of accuracy and efficiency in radio message transfer. Except for the prowords, introducers and operational words presented herein the receiving operator copies everything else voiced by the sending operator between the framing prowords. Extraneous words, comments and explanations, etc., are counterproductive and are considered poor practice.

 

The resultant copy should always be a replica of the original radiogram in every respect.

“Every single word not absolutely needed may be dispensed with profitably.” - Operating An Amateur Radio Station (OARS pamphlet), CD-4(1/83), ARRL, Inc., Newington, CT, page17.

 

ITU PHONETIC ALPHABET

A

ALFA

J

JULIETT

S

SIERRA

2

TWO

B

BRAVO

K

KILO

T

TANGO

3

THREE (TREE)

C

CHARLIE

L

LIMA

U

UNIFORM

4

FOUR

D

DELTA

M

MIKE

V

VICTOR

5

FIVE (FIFE)

E

ECHO

N

NOVEMBER

W

WHISKEY

6

SIX

F

FOXTROT

O

OSCAR

X

X-RAY

7

SEVEN

G

GOLF

P

PAPA (PA-'PA)

Y

YANKEE

8

EIGHT

H

HOTEL

Q

QUEBEC (KAY-'BEK)

Z

ZULU

9

NINE (NINER)

I

INDIA

R

ROMEO

1

ONE

0

ZERO

 

FRAMES

A receiving operator needs to know where copy should begin and end. This is indicated by the sending operator using certain prowords to “frame” the individual message, the text, a message book, or individual parts of booked messages.

 



(See Single Message Voicing Example and Book Voicing Example.)


The “end no more” phrase is understood to indicate “OVER” which may be therefore dispensed with. The receiving operator copies all groups sent between the message, part, or text framing prowords except the prowords themselves.

 

INTRODUCERS

Words used to introduce non-plain-text groups in the address, text and signature. Each group eligible for introduction or spelling is dealt with one group at a time. When voicing an introduced group (or preamble group eligible for introduction) the characters are each voiced one character at a time, letters phonetically. There is only one introducer used per group. (An additional introducer would indicate the beginning of a new group.) See also the special rules for Preamble Voicing.

 

Introducer

Example

Voicing: One introducer per group. Voice one character at a time, letters phonetically. Introducers are shown here in lower case except for the letters “ARL.”

AMATEUR CALL

W1AW

amateur call WHISKEY ONE ALFA WHISKEY” (No appended information - see MIXED GROUP for voicing call signs with appended information.)

 

AMATEUR CALLS
(optional shortcut)

(special)

Used to introduce a series of amateur call sign groups in a message text, using the introducer only once for the first of the series, as in net reports, etc. Use with care. In such a series all the groups must be of the same type.

 

ARL (in check)
(If numbered radiogram in the text.)

ARL 15

A R L… ONE FIFE.” The “ARL” is voiced as three separate letters without introduction, and the check figures follow after a space pause without introduction, voiced one digit at a time.

 

ARL (in text)
(Numbered Radiogram numbers are always written spelled out and voiced with phonetic spelling.)

ARL SIXTY

A R L… SIXTY I spell SIERRA INDIA X-RAY TANGO YANKEE.” The “ARL” is voiced as three separate letters, although in difficult conditions it may be introduced as an initial group as in “initials ALFA ROMEO LIMA.”

 

FIGURE,
FIGURES

6
16

figure SIX

figures ONE SIX

(Compound form sixteen, etc., not used.)

 

Telephone figures in text.

555 1234

figures FIFE FIFE FIFE… figures ONE TWO TREE FOUR” (Two groups. Three groups, as in 410 555 1234, are handled in a similar fashion.)

 

Telephone figures following a zip code in an address or signature address - the typical message address.

(special)

Address telephone figure groups after a zip code are introduced with the figures introducer only once, as in 410 555 1234: “figures FOUR ONE ZERO… FIFE FIFE FIFE… ONE TWO TREE FOUR”, using separating pauses. (Such groups in the text are introduced individually.)

 

Telephone figures following an address or signature address with NO preceding zip code:
PHONE FIGURES

(special)

Address telephone figure groups with NO preceding zip code are introduced with the “PHONE FIGURES” introducer used only once (this is a signal for the copying operator to skip the zip code in the copy).

Given: BALTIMORE MD 410 555 1234, voice:

BALTIMORE MARYLAND phone figures FOUR ONE ZERO… FIFE FIFE FIFE… ONE TWO TREE FOUR.”

(Elsewhere each group is introduced.)

 

Nine digit ZIP codes.
(in an address only)

 (special)

Format - 21200 DASH 2345, voiced with the “figures” introducer used only once as in “figures TWO ONE TWO ZERO ZERO DASH I spell D A S H… TWO TREE FOUR FIFE

(Elsewhere each group is introduced.)

 

Canadian or other mixed group ZIP codes.
(in an address only)

(special)

Format - A4X 2L7, voiced as in "mixed groups ALFA FOUR X-RAY... TWO LIMA SEVEN", using a pause between groups.

(Elsewhere each group is introduced.)

 

INITIAL

X

initial X-Ray” (The older non-introducing method will result in copy of the word “X-Ray”, not “X”.)

 

A

initial ALFA

INITIALS

CW

initials CHARLIE WHISKEY

 

INITIAL GROUPS
(optional shortcut)

(special)

Used to introduce a series of initial groups in a message text, using the introducer only once for the first of the series as in net reports, etc., for voicing a series of suffixes. Use with care. In such a series all the groups must be of the same type.

MIXED GROUP
(2 or more character types,
beginning with letters or “/”)

B2
AM/3

mixed group BRAVO TWO

mixed group ALFA MIKE SLASH TREE

(Note there is no additional introducer for the figure 3.)

 

W1AW/3

mixed group WHISKEY ONE ALFA WHISKEY SLASH TREE” (This is not a simple call sign but a mixed group.)

 

MIXED GROUPS
(optional shortcut)

(special)

Used to introduce a series of mixed groups in a message text, using the introducer only once for the first of the series as in net reports, etc., for voicing a series of call signs appended with added information. Use with care. In such a series all the groups must be of the same type.

 

MIXED GROUP FIGURE
(2 or more character types,
beginning with a figure)

2M
2/A
3PM
4/B3

mixed group figure TWO MIKE

mixed group figure TWO SLASH ALFA

mixed group figure TREE PAPA MIKE

mixed group figure FOUR SLASH BRAVO TREE” (Note there is no additional introducer for the figure 3.)

MIXED GROUP FIGURES
(2 or more character types,
beginning with 2 or more figures)

1430PM

146R67

mixed group figures ONE FOUR TREE ZERO PAPA MIKE” (single group)

mixed group figures ONE FOUR SIX ROMEO SIX SEVEN” (single group)

 

OP NOTE

OP NOTE

Voiced as prowords to introduce address or signature op note information. The information within an op note is voiced as in text groups. The OP NOTE introduction follows the last of the address or signature information.

 

INTRODUCER SUMMARY

INTRODUCER*

GROUP

VOICING

AMATEUR CALL

W1AW

amateur call WHISKEY ONE ALFA WHISKEY

ARL In check

ARL 12

A R L ONE TWO.”

ARL In text

ARL
SIXTY

A R L SIXTY I spell SIERRA INDIA X-RAY TANGO YANKEE

FIGURE

4

figure FOUR,”

FIGURES

16

figures ONE SIX.”

INITIAL

A

initial ALFA,”

INITIALS

PM

initials PAPA MIKE.”

MIXED GROUP

B2
B/6
W1AW/1

mixed group BRAVO TWO,”

mixed group BRAVO SLASH SIX,”

mixed group WHISKEY ONE ALFA WHISKEY SLASH ONE

MIXED GROUP
FIGURE

2PM
2/3

mixed group figure TWO PAPA MIKE,”

mixed group figure TWO SLASH TREE,”

MIXED GROUP
FIGURES

2310Z
146R67

mixed group figures TWO TREE ONE ZERO ZULU,”

mixed group figures ONE FOUR SIX ROMEO SIX SEVEN.”

Introducers alert the receiving operator to the special nature of the following group to be transmitted. Introducers may be voiced in a slightly different tone of voice and a little faster than copy speed to help distinguish them. This process becomes second nature to experienced traffic handlers. Remember that all introduced groups, or groups eligible to be introduced in the Preamble, are voiced one character at a time, letters phonetically.

* See the Introducers section regarding the introduction of telephone numbers and zip codes in addresses, OP NOTE, and the special use of AMATEUR CALLS and INITIAL GROUPS for introducing a series of like groups.

 

PREAMBLE VOICING, SPECIAL RULES

Special rules. Introducers not used.

All groups in the Preamble eligible to be introduced are voiced as if they had been introduced but the introducer is omitted. Such groups are voiced one character at a time, letters phonetically. Introducers are not used when voicing the preamble.

SVC

voiced as “service,” as in “number SERVICE TWO ONE… ROUTINE…

Message #

voiced one digit at a time.

Precedence

voiced as the full word, not the initial, as in: “number TWO ROUTINE….”

Handling Instructions

(HX_, optional) are voiced one character at a time, letters phonetically.

Station of Origin

call sign voiced one character at a time, letters phonetically.

Check

voiced one digit at a time, as in (12) “ONE TWO;” ARL voiced as letters followed by digits one at a time, as in (ARL 12) “A R L ONE TWO.”

Amended Check

(12/13) is voiced “ONE TWO CORRECTED TO ONE TREE,” or (12/ARL 12) “ONE TWO CORRECTED TO A R L ONE TWO.”

City Of Origin

spelled using “I spell” if not a common name well known. This is the location of the person signing the message, not necessarily the location of the stn of orig. Example: “PODUNK I spell PAPA OSCAR DELTA UNIFORM NOVEMBER KILO,” or optionally letter-spelled if no ambiguity.

State

voiced as the full name, as in “MARYLAND… ” for MD.

Time Filed

voiced one character at a time, letters phonetically.

Month

voiced as the full name, as in “MARCH… ” for MAR.

Date

voiced one digit at a time, as in “NINER” or “ONE FOUR.”

Examples:

2 R W1AW 12 NEWINGTON CT MAR 24

“NUMBER TWO… ROUTINE… WHISKEY ONE ALFA WHISKEY… ONE TWO… NEWINGTON… CONNECTICUT… MARCH… TWO FOUR…”

3 R HXCE W1AW ARL 6 NEWINGTON CT 1320L MAR 25

“NUMBER TREE… ROUTINE… HOTEL X-RAY CHARLIE ECHO… WHISKEY ONE ALFA WHISKEY… A R L SIX… NEWINGTON… CONNECTICUT… ONE TREE TWO ZERO LIMA… MARCH… TWO FIFE…”

 

OPERATIONAL WORDS

(Used to tell the receiving operator what you are doing.)

I SPELL

Say the single group, immediately add “I spell”, then spell the group with letters or phonetically, as in: “TWO I spell T W O”, or “BACH I spell BRAVO ALFA CHARLIE HOTEL.”

I SAY AGAIN (emphasis)

Say a group, or a phrase of several groups, say “I say again”, and repeat the group(s) for emphasis, as in: “BRACKETS I say again BRACKETS;” or “BACK TODAY I say again BACK TODAY.”

I SAY AGAIN (on error)

Given the text: “BACK NEXT TUESDAY;” correct sending error: “BACK TUESDAY I say again BACK NEXT TUESDAY.” Note after “I say again” you go back to the last group sent correctly and resume transmission including that group. This action distinguishes this use of “I say again.”

break

Proword to frame voicing the text or separate parts of a book.

number - end

Prowords to frame voicing the single radiogram.

book of (qty.) - end book

Prowords to frame voicing a book of messages.

more, one more, no more

Operational words following end or end book to indicate the number of messages to follow. “No more” implies “over.”

OVER

Go Ahead (end of transmission). Using “OVER” to end voice transmissions greatly helps in avoiding “doubling” with another station.

(Used to tell the receiving operator what you mean.)

ROGER

All received and understood.” (Does NOT mean yes!)

CHARLIE, AFFIRMATIVE

Means “YES.”

NO, NEGATIVE

Means “NO.”

 

SPELLING

·         GROUPS ARE SPELLED ONE AT A TIME. Voice the group then immediately say “I spell,” then spell the group with either letters or phonetics. Do not voice two or more groups and then go back to spell them. “I spell” is used for one group at a time. If a group requiring spelling is passed over the sending operator may use “I say again” to go back to the group in question, spell it, and then continue on with transmission from that point. (Alternatively the introducer “initials” may be used to spell some groups as in Jon, initials JULIETT OSCAR NOVEMBER,” without first voicing the “Jon.”)

·         ADDRESSEE LAST NAMES are customarily spelled with phonetics. Last names are critically important for verification and delivery of radiograms.

·         OTHER PROPER NAMES are customarily spelled with letters or phonetics. This is not mandatory for names such as commonly understood location names or names such as “John,” but “Jon” would be spelled. Upon hearing the “I spell” the receiving operator will wait to hear the group spelled. Any proper name for which the spelling is not commonly understood should be spelled out

·         SOUND-ALIKE OR UNUSUAL GROUPS are spelled with letters or phonetics, as in: TWO I spell T W O,” or “OXEN I spell OSCAR X-RAY ECHO NOVEMBER

·         The choice to use LETTERS rather than PHONETICS depends upon whether the letters may sound alike or be uncertain to the receiving operator (the B, C, D, E, G, P, T, V, Z effect). Overuse of phonetics wastes time in good radio conditions, but when there is any doubt about the likelihood of accurate copy spell it out with letters, or, in poor conditions, use the phonetics which greatly aid in correct copy.

·         ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAM numbers (always written out as words) are always voiced, then, using “I spell,” each individual number is spelled with phonetics. “Fifty and Sixty, and the teen’s compounds, tend to sound alike over radio. Where two numbers are used each is spelled individually, as in: “A R L SIXTY I spell SIERRA INDIA X-RAY TANGO YANKEE… ONE I spell OSCAR NOVEMBER ECHO”

 

SENDING SPEED

·         Perhaps the single most difficult skill in sending record traffic is learning the speed at which to voice the groups transmitted. The receiving operator may be copying with pen and paper, using a favorite old “mill,” or using word processing. Knowing which method is in use is helpful in tailoring sending speed but assuming pen and paper is the starting point.

·         Introduced and spelled groups are sent one character at a time thus it is generally easy to “keep up” with the sending speed for those. Other groups or phrases transmitted must be sent with sufficient clarity and appropriate speed for the receiving operator to perceive what to copy and not to have to rush to “keep up.” Rushing leads to errors and/or illegible copy.

·         An experienced operator will, for example, transmit a phrase or long group followed by an “X” by sending the phrase or group, pausing for copy time, and then voicing the “X-RAY.” Otherwise the “X” may be forgotten by the receiving operator concentrating on spelling out the prior phrase or group.

·         Remember that spaces are also a critically important part of the process. Spaces, or pauses in articulation, convey group separation and other signals to the receiving operator. Sending “Glen Dale Court” too quickly may result in the incorrect copy of Glendale Court. Omission of a pause is also a signal, for example, when sending a group, voicing “I spell” immediately, and then going back to voice the characters one at a time (the receiving operator hearing “I spell” immediately will wait for the spelling).

·         Introduction and spelling also clearly indicate that only one group is being treated in the transmission.

·         The sending operator should always voice the groups as recommended and visualize the ongoing copy process. When transmitting pretend to “spell out” and copy the groups as they are sent. This will automatically allow the extra time needed by the receiving operator to spell out the longer groups or phrases.

·         This all requires practice. Sending traffic on regular nets or across a table from a receiving operator can help you to learn how to do this effectively. Receiving traffic yourself will give you insight into the effects of sending speed, but you will still have to concentrate on paying special attention to this matter during transmission. Knowing how to do this well is a mark of an experienced traffic handler. During emergencies an inexperienced operator may send too quickly and not be experienced in these protocols resulting in numerous fill requests, uncertainty and reduction in net throughput to half or worse.

 

·         The objective in handling written radio message traffic is to transmit, copy, relay and deliver the message EXACTLY as it was written by the originator.

 

 

MESSAGE VOICING RULE SUMMARY

FRAME START

·         A single message frame begins with “number,” the book frame begins with “book of [number].” Frame prowords are not copied.

PREAMBLE

·         All groups are voiced using the rigorous rules for text groups except that for all groups eligible to be introduced the introducer is omitted and the characters are sent one at a time, letters phonetically. See Preamble Voicing.

ADDRESS

·         All groups are voiced using the rigorous rules for text groups except special rules apply for introducing and voicing telephone figures and certain zip codes. Three groups of telephone figures are introduced with “figures” once at the beginning. If no zip code is present telephone figures are introduced with “phone figures.” Last names are spelled with phonetics. See Introducers, Figures.

OP NOTE

·         Address Op Note regarding delivery is introduced with the prowords “op note” and the information within the Op Note is voiced using text rules.

TEXT

·         The text is begun with the proword “break” followed by a listening pause.

·         The most rigorous voicing rules apply. All eligible groups are introduced as described in the Introducers rules which require each character in the group to be voiced individually, letters phonetically.

·         A series of the same kind of groups eligible to be introduced may be introduced once in the plural at the beginning of the series (a shortcut of convenience for net reports, etc.)

·         Proper names are spelled with letters or phonetics after using “I spell.” Sound-alike groups, plurals and unusual words are spelled with letters or phonetics after using “I spell.”

·         A series of groups may be voiced as a phrase so long as there are no groups contained therein eligible to be introduced.

·         The text ends with the proword “break” without a following listening pause.

·         The beginning and ending text frame “break” groups are not copied or counted in the check.

SIGNATURE

·         All groups are voiced using the rigorous rules for text groups except special rules apply for introducing and voicing telephone figures and certain zip codes. Three groups of telephone figures are introduced with “figures” once at the beginning. If no zip code is present telephone figures are introduced with “phone figures.” Last names are spelled with phonetics. See Introducers, Figures.

OP NOTE

·         Signature Op Note regarding servicing or replies is introduced with the prowords “op note” and the information within the Op Note is voiced using text rules.

FRAME END

·         Single message copy stops at the proword “end.” Book copy stops at the prowords “end book.” These frame prowords are not copied. The end of the frame is concluded with the operational words “more, one more, no more” as appropriate. “No more” implies “over.” See the following message and book voicing examples and the Message Exchange.

SPEED

·         Send the message using appropriate speed for manual pen and paper copy unless requested to do otherwise. Transmit pauses clearly - they are free.

EXTRANEOUS

WORDS

·         All other extraneous words or comments are dispensed with. Except for introducers and operational words everything else voiced is copied by the receiving operator. Avoid voicing all such extraneous words or message part names when transmitting.

 

SINGLE MESSAGE VOICING EXAMPLE 

Typical typed presentation of the ARRL radiogram shown in the format which may also be used on digital modes including radio-email. NTSD traffic requires a “TO” and “SUBJECT” line entry ahead of the preamble for routing information (See MPG-6). The “=” symbol used for break is consistent with the double dash symbol used on the CW mode.

·         Use the appropriate frame prowords (number, end, etc.)

·         Bold groups should be spelled.

·         Underlined groups in the Preamble are eligible for introduction but the introducers are omitted. (See also the Preamble Voicing).

·         Underlined eligible groups elsewhere are introduced.

3 TEST P W1AW 26 MIDDLE RIVER MD 1118L MAR 19

Preamble - no introducers used.

JOHN P SMYTHE EC W3XYZ
16 OAK RD
PODUNK MD 21200

Addressee (last name spelled with phonetics), title, call and address.

410 555 1234

See special tel. nr. introduction.

=

Break: “BT,” or “=,” or blank line.

EXERCISE X WAVE HIT AT
1110 X DAMAGE TO WILSON
POINT AREA AND HAWTHORNE AREA
X I AM ON 145R45
WITH WB3FMT ON 2 METERS
EXERCISE

Text (this message is shown as a test priority exercise message).

=

Break: “BT,” or “=,” or blank line.

PHIL W1AW

Signature

 

Blank line before next message.

(Voicing example -  indicates a copy pause )
RX: “Ready to copy;” TX:
NUMBER TREE… TEST PRIORITY… WHISKEY ONE ALFA WHISKEY… TWO SIX… MIDDLE RIVER MARYLAND… ONE ONE ONE EIGHT LIMA… MARCH… ONE NINER

JOHN… initial PAPA SMYTHE I spell SIERRA MIKE YANKEE TANGO HOTEL ECHO…
figures ONE SIX OAK I spell O A K initials ROMEO DELTA…

PODUNK I spell PAPA OSCAR DELTA UNIFORM NOVEMBER KILO MARYLAND…
figures TWO ONE TWO ZERO ZERO…
figures FOUR ONE ZERO… FIFE FIFE FIFE… ONE TWO TREE FOUR…
break(PTT release expected here for a possible fill request. If nothing heard in a few seconds, continue.)

EXERCISE… initial X-RAY… WAVE HIT AT
figures ONE ONE ONE ZERO initial X-RAY… DAMAGE… TO I spell T O WILSON I spell W I L S O N…
POINT AREA… AND HAWTHORNE I spell H A W T H O R N E AREA…
initial X-RAY… initial INDIA AM ON mixed group figures ONE FOUR FIFE ROMEO FOUR FIFE…
WITH
amateur call WHISKEY BRAVO TREE FOXTROT MIKE TANGO… ON figure TWO METERS…
EXERCISE…
break
PHIL I spell PAPA HOTEL INDIA LIMA… amateur call WHISKEY ONE ALFA WHISKEY…
end no more” (PTT release)
“ROGER [73] W3RX”
“[THANKS 73] W3TX”

 

BOOK VOICING EXAMPLE

Messages having common parts may optionally be voiced “booked” to save transmission time. The resultant copy must be able to be restored to single message replicas of the originals. Booking is a voicing option of the operators.

Given the example messages:

5 R W1AW ARL 9 NEWINGTON CT MAY 16

JOHN SMITH
16 OAK RD
PODUNK MD 21200
410 555 1234
=
ARL FIFTY ARL FIFTY SIX
LICENSE RENEWAL X 73
=
RICK

6 R W1AW ARL 9 NEWINGTON CT MAY 16

JAMES DOE
22 ELM STREET
PODUNK MD 21200
410 555 5678
=
ARL FIFTY ARL FIFTY SIX
RECENT UPGRADE X 73
=
RICK

(Book voicing example -  indicates a copy pause )
RX: “Ready to copy;” TX:
”book of two ROUTINE WHISKEY ONE ALFA WHISKEY ARL NINER NEWINGTON CONNECTICUT MAY ONE SIX break(PTT release)
ARL FIFTY
I spell FOXTROT INDIA FOXTROT TANGO YANKEE… ARL FIFTY I spell FOXTROT INDIA FOXTROT TANGO YANKEE… SIX I spell SIERRA INDIA X-RAY… BLANK BLANK… initial X-RAY figures SEVEN TREE break… RICK I spell ROMEO INDIA CHARLIE KILO…
break(PTT release)
number FIFE JOHN SMITH I spell SIERRA MIKE INDIA TANGO HOTEL…
figures ONE SIX OAK I spell O A K initials ROMEO DELTA…
PODUNK… MARYLAND…
figures TWO ONE TWO ZERO ZERO…
figures FOUR ONE ZERO… FIFE FIFE FIFE… ONE TWO TREE FOUR…
break(PTT release) LICENSE RENEWAL…
break(PTT release)
number SIX JAMES DOE I spell DELTA OSCAR ECHO…
figures TWO TWO ELM STREET…
PODUNK… MARYLAND…
figures TWO ONE TWO ZERO ZERO…
figures FOUR ONE ZERO… FIFE FIFE FIFE… FIFE SIX SEVEN EIGHT…
break(PTT release) RECENT UPGRADE…
end bookno more” (PTT release)
“ROGER [73] W3RX”
“[THANKS 73] W3TX”

 

BLANKS, USED IN BOOK TRANSMISSION

Booking is a transmitting technique used to save time in transmission by avoiding repeating common parts in a number of messages. It is used by agreement between operators and is always optional. (Examples below are shown written out - use proper voicing when sending.)

 

BLANKS, ONE FOR ONE SUBSTITUTION:

·         When sending books with a common text except for one or more groups which may be variable, one or more “blank” groups may be used as place holders in the fixed text to indicate each of the groups to be provided in the variable message parts later.

·         With this method the “blanks” provide for a group count in the common text which agrees with the Preamble Check. This is a signal to the receiving operator that there will be a group for group correlation in the variable text for the contents of each “blank” sent later. This one for one substitution defines the variable text as having only one group representing each “blank” used in the common text, hence there is no ambiguity between the groups transmitted in the variable text.

·         These “blanks” may be associated with plain text, or with ARRL Numbered Radiograms, or both.

·         Example common text, check ARL 8:

break ARL FIFTY THREE BLANK ARL FIFTY SIX BLANK break (SIG) break

and in the variable parts:

number 12 (address) break LETTER LICENSE break

number 13 (address) break PACKAGE APPOINTMENT end book no more

 

·         Multiple “blanks” are permitted, each in the position in the common text of the groups to be given later. Generally if more than two consecutive “blanks” are required a single placeholder method is used (see below).

 

BLANKS, SINGLE PLACEHOLDER FOR MULTIPLE GROUPS:

·         When sending books with a common text except for a number of groups which may be variable, and more than two consecutive “blanks” would be required as single group placeholders, it is permissible to use a single placeholder for all the variable groups even though the common text will not have a group count which agrees with the Preamble Check. The receiving operator will recognize the disparity and watch for the number of groups used in the variable texts. (When parts of a book are reformed into single messages the resultant group counts for the texts for each message must agree with the given Preamble Check.)

·         If more than one “blank” of this type is used in a common text care must be taken to ensure that there will be no ambiguity in the variable texts given later as to where the information from one “blank” ends and the next begins (adding an “X” or other marker between groups is not permitted to separate such groups). Thus if ambiguity would result by using more than one such single “blank” placeholder, each in place of multiple groups, it would be wise to avoid booking the message transmission (or the sending operator may use a single “blank” for a block of text as shown in the next part below).

·         Such single placeholder “blanks” may be associated with plain text, or with ARRL Numbered Radiograms, or both.

·         Example common text to different addressees, Check ARL 8:

break ARL FORTY SEVEN BLANK break (SIG) break

and in the variable parts:

number 14 (address 1) break 305 W1AW MAR 15 2330 break

number 15 (address 2) break 307 W1AW MAR 16 0745 end book no more

·         Example common text to the same addressee, Check ARL 8:

(address) break

ARL FORTY SEVEN BLANK break (SIG) break

and in the variable parts:

number 14 break 305 W1AW MAR 15 2330 break

number 15 break 307 W1AW MAR 16 0745 end book no more

 

BLANKS, BLOCK OF TEXT TO REDUCE AMBIGUITY:

·         Where multiple single placeholder “blanks” are required to book separate parts of a common text where ambiguity would result in determining group boundaries in the variable parts a single “blank” may be used for a block of text. This allows the unchanging intermediate groups between the variable parts to form a boundary between the numerous groups.

·         Example common text to different addressees, Check ARL 18:

SCHEDULED TO LEAVE TONIGHT X ARL SIXTY FIVE BLANK 73 break (SIG) break

and in the variable parts:

number 14 (address 1) break STL MAR 10 1330 UA 701 ARL EIGHT 6 break

number 15 (address 2) break BWI MAR 10 1745 C 15 ARL EIGHT 10 end book no more

 

 

JUMPING AHEAD

·         A receiving operator, recognizing a “standard message” from an originator, might interrupt the sending with “SIGNATURE” (at the “break” before the text) as soon as the address is received. The sending operator skips the text, sends “break,” and follows with the signature.

·         If the receiving station interrupts with a ROGER at the “break” before the text it is indicating it knows both the text and signature, however the sending operator should send the signature and signature op note, if an op note is present, when the op note is not “standard” for that message. If in doubt the sending operator should at least confirm the receiving station has the op note.

 

 

FILL REQUESTS

At the first text frame break or at the end of the message the receiving operator may ask for repeats of specific groups or part names, or may request confirmation of groups copied. This is done with a simple declarative statement such as “word after THE,” or “street address,” etc., or “confirm HAMFEST.” The interrogative is implied. The sending operator repeats the group(s) requested or confirms the copy given. Notice that “OVER” is not required in such exchanges. The receiving operator then may make an additional request or reply “ROGER,” or “GO AHEAD,” to resume the exchange. The requests follow:

GROUPS

“[IN (part)] WORD AFTER (group(s))"
“[IN (part)] WORD BEFORE (group(s))"
“[IN (part)] ALL AFTER (group(s))"
“[IN (part)] ALL BEFORE (group(s))"
“[IN (part)] BETWEEN (group A) AND (group B)"

·         The optional “[IN (part)]” refers to the PBL, addressee, street address, city, zip, telephone number, text, signature, op note, or whatever part of the message to which you wish to direct the attention of the operator for the fill request. The “[IN (part)]” is not used unless necessary for clarity in the request.

PART NAME

To request repeat of a part of the message ask “(part name)", such as preamble, number, precedence, handling instructions, station-of-origin, check, city-of-origin, date, last name addressee, street address, city, zip, telephone, address op note, text (entire), signature, signature op note, etc. Simply say “preamble”, “text”, “zip”, or “signature”, etc., and the sending station will repeat that part of the message specified.

CONFIRM

To verify a group or part ask: “CONFIRM (group(s))";
The affirmative response is "CONFIRM", or a correction is sent by repeating the correct group(s), spelling if necessary for clarity.

 

 

FILL RESPONSES

The shortest and most efficient method is preferred and is shown here. Given a message text and signature as follows:
“… ARRIVED 6PM X WILL BE ARRIVING HOME NEXT WEEK break LLOYD end no more

STN

FILL REQUEST (1)

STN

RESPONSE (2)

RX:

“WORD AFTER HOME”

TX:

“NEXT”

RX:

“WORD BEFORE BE”

TX:

“WILL”

RX:

“BETWEEN ARRIVING AND WEEK”

TX:

“HOME NEXT”

RX:

“CONFIRM HOME”

TX:

“CONFIRM”

RX:

“CONFIRM THIS WEEK”

TX:

“NEXT WEEK” (3)

RX:

“IN TEXT ALL AFTER HOME”, (Use of [IN (PART)])

TX:

“NEXT WEEK”

RX:

“SIGNATURE”, (Use of PART NAME)

TX:

“LLOYD I spell L L O Y D”

1.

The request may contain one or more groups as required for clarity. For example, if there is more than one “X” in the message text give the group before the “X” and the “X” to reduce the ambiguity.

2.

Transmit requested group(s). There is no need to repeat the request. There is no need to transmit additional groups before and after the group(s) requested unless there is some need for particular emphasis or clarity by framing. Simply give the receiving operator what is asked for, remembering on repeaters to allow time for the links and transmitters to come up before voicing. Notice that “OVER” is not required in such exchanges.

3.

“NEXT” might be spelled to emphasize the error correction.

 

 

3. DIRECTED TRAFFIC NETS

ID REQUIREMENTS

·         Give your full call sign when checking into the net and when excused directly from the net. Give your full call sign after making comments, other contributions to the net and exchanging traffic.

·         Suffixes may be used to seek permission to transmit. Suffixes may be used to acknowledge leaving the net when dispatched to a stack. No response is expected from individual stations excused en-mass by list or by closing the net.

 

 

CHECKING IN, LISTING TRAFFIC

Listen to the NCS. Open net calls (for any stations) or specific net calls will be made from time to time. When the appropriate call is made for your category check into the net with the following information. List all your business at the first check-in opportunity.

[CALL]

[JOBS]

[ASSIGNMENTS]

[TRAFFIC STATUS]

[TRAFFIC LIST]

[COMMENT]

(full call sign)

Such as alternate net control, etc.

Liaison assignments, using “FROM” and “TO” net name as required for clarity,

1) “NO TRAFFIC”; (OVER is not required unless a comment is added),
or

(none)

(Info useful or needed by the NCS.) End with OVER.

 

 

then voice traffic status 1, 2, or 3.

2) “WITH TRAFFIC”, if multiple responders possible;

or

Wait for NCS request to “LIST” then “(call sign) TRAFFIC (TRAFFIC LIST)” …

(Info useful or needed by the NCS.) End with OVER.

 

 

 

3) If single responder;

“TRAFFIC…”

Give full

“(TRAFFIC LIST)”

(Info useful or needed by the NCS.) End with OVER.

Examples:
VOICING THE TRAFFIC LIST:

W1AW… [ALTERNATE NET CONTROL]… [FROM FIRST REGION]… TRAFFIC… [PODUNK ONE]… [PODUNK HOLLOW TWO]… [MESSAGE FOR ALL STATIONS ONE]… [WORDS FOR NET]… [WORDS FOR W1XYZ]… [CAN HANDLE NEWINGTON]… OVER

·         Comments are related to information which might be required by the NCS. Words for the net or with the NCS are listed separately.

·         On Section nets it is customary to assist traffic assignment by giving the telephone area code and exchange for listed traffic, as in: “PODUNK ONE PHONE FOUR ONE ZERO… FIFE FIFE FIFE”; and if two or more messages listed for the same location: “PODUNK HOLLOW TWO PHONE FOUR ONE ZERO… FIFE FIFE FIFE AND FOUR ONE ZERO… FIFE FIFE SIX.” Booked messages may also be listed to aid in dispatching: “BOOK OF THREE PODUNK HEIGHTS 1 PODUNK 2,” phone information added as necessary as above.

 

SINGLE RESPONDERS:

(Single liaisons or stations called specifically.)

W1AW… FIRST REGION… NO TRAFFIC; (OVER not required) or

W1AW… FIRST REGION… TRAFFIC… PODUNK ONE… WORDS W1XYZ… OVER

MULTIPLE RESPONDERS, the “two step” check-in method:
(Multiple responders are possible on net calls such as those for liaisons where more than one is expected, or in calls where numerous stations might respond, such as a call for stations with suffixes beginning with ALFA through MIKE, etc.)

W1AW… NO TRAFFIC;

(NCS will repeat your call to acknowledge. You are checked in.); or

W1AW… WITH TRAFFIC;

Wait for NCS to ask you to “LIST,” then check in with your full traffic list:

W1AW… TRAFFIC… PODUNK ONE… WORDS W1XYZ… OVER

 

 

TRANSMIT ONLY WITH NCS PERMISSION

PERMISSION TO TRANSMIT

·         On a directed traffic net the stations should transmit only with permission from the NCS. This may be done in response to net calls by the NCS for general check-ins, calls for specific assistance, for relays, to respond to traffic offers; or by NCS calls to specific stations. For stations already checked into the net such permission is obtained by voicing the station’s call sign suffix, waiting for the NCS to repeat the suffix to acknowledge the request, and then transmitting the request, information or relay, etc.

·         Failure to have NCS permission to transmit can quickly lead to disorder on directed nets. Listen to the NCS and avoid the impulse to jump in without permission.

TRANSACTIONS

·         Business on a directed traffic net generally consists of “transactions,” i.e. exchanges between the NCS and a station or between two or more stations on the net with NCS permission. The NCS also makes open and specific net calls from time to time, checks stations into the net, assigns traffic to recipient stations, dispatches traffic, and excuses stations.

·         There are generally key words used to conclude such transactions such as checking in a station by the NCS saying the call sign and asking the station to “stand by,” or a traffic dispatching operation to an off-net frequency which is concluded by the stations dispatched acknowledging “(suffix) going”, or an exchange of traffic or information on the net concluded by the stations signing their full call signs. Listen to the NCS and wait for any transactions in progress to be completed before breaking into the net for any reason (except for an emergency or urgent need to gain the attention of the NCS such as to catch an excused or dispatched station before it leaves the net frequency).

TAIL-ENDING

·         Most NCS operators will accept tail-ending calls. When a transaction is completed on the net frequency a new station checking in, a station on the net requesting permission to transmit, or a station returning from off frequency, can make its call to gain the attention of the NCS. Thus new check-ins, net stations and returning stations do not necessarily have to wait for the NCS to make an open or specific net call to have an opportunity to make the attempt. However, if the NCS makes a specific net call such stations should pause briefly to allow the specific responder(s) time to make their call before tail-ending an attempt. For example if NCS calls for a station in Podunk a pause should be given for any Podunk responder before a new station, net station or returning station should make their call. A wise NCS should leave gaps between transactions to accommodate such tail-ending calls.

 

 

NET DUTIES AND FORMAT

·         NCS DUTIES include calling the net, checking in stations, listing traffic, assigning traffic, dispatching traffic, excusing stations, closing the net and filing a net report for each session run.

·         Consult the Net Manager for the suggested net format and other policies. The net format is a style or sequence of operations customized for that particular net and is a separate policy from the standard operating protocols presented in this document.

 

 

OTHER MODES, BANDS

·         The NCS may dispatch stations to exchange traffic using other modes such as Winlink 2000 radio-email, packet radio, RTTY, APRS, or other means. The NCS may also dispatch stations to other bands or modes such as to the CW segments or other bands better suited to the propagation between the stations or band crowding conditions. HF ground wave or simplex VHF/UHF may be used.

·         The objective of directed traffic nets is to move the maximum amount of traffic in the shortest possible time. Other activities on the net are simply overhead in performing that task.

·         Separate nets may be set up for groups of stations with common traffic exchanging requirements or for welfare traffic distribution, etc. Section plans generally call for liaisons between all nets operating in support of an emergency response. The NCS will explore all possible paths for moving traffic based upon available resources.

 

 

 

4. THE MESSAGE EXCHANGE

The primary business on directed traffic nets is to move traffic (although some special nets may also interweave social exchanges between traffic dispatches, etc.).


In the following examples RX is the receiving station, TX the sender. Unless instructed otherwise the sending station passes all the dispatched traffic with only the customary listening pauses. Fills may be requested at those pauses. Thus a series of singles and/or booked messages is sent continuously with only listening pauses for fills and then the entire series is acknowledged at the end. When finished the receiving station clears any remaining fills and then acknowledges all the traffic with a “ROGER” and ID at the end.

 

MESSAGE EXCHANGE, TWO STATIONS ON AND OFF NET

ON NET: RX addressed first by NCS:

NCS:

“W3RX W3TX HERE PODUNK 2”

RX:

“[W3TX W3RX] READY TO COPY” (Note: The RX station at this point may omit the “Ready to Copy” to force the TX station to ask “Ready to Copy?” This may be done if the RX station is not sure if it can hear the TX station well.)

TX:

“number... (voices message 1) ... end one more” (listening pause for fills)

TX:

“number... (voices message 2) ... end no more”

RX:

“ROGER [73] W3RX”

TX:

“[THANKS 73] W3TX”; and the NCS resumes control.

 

Or, TX first (used when the RX may not be hearing the NCS well):

NCS:

“W3TX W3RX HERE PODUNK 2”

TX:

“[W3RX W3TX] READY TO COPY?”

RX:

“[W3RX] READY TO COPY”

TX:

“number... (voices message 1) ... end one more” (listening pause for fills)

TX:

“number... (voices message 2) ... end no more”

RX:

“ROGER [73] W3RX”

TX:

“[THANKS 73] W3TX”; and the NCS resumes control.

 

OFF NET, TWO STATIONS

Moving to a “stack” frequency. The RX station checks the frequency and initiates the call to establish the stack frequency. If the assigned frequency is busy the RX station moves in a direction away from the net to the first available clear frequency to initiate the stack.

NCS:

“W3RX W3TX [FREQUENCY] PODUNK 2”

RX:

“RX GOING”;

TX:

“TX GOING”; acknowledging in the order dispatched, and at the stack:

RX:

“IS THE FREQUENCY IN USE?”… then “W3TX W3RX READY TO COPY”

 

(Note: As above, the RX station may omit the “Ready to Copy” to force the TX station to ask in cases where the RX station is not sure it can copy the TX station.)

TX:

“[W3TX] number... (voices message 1) ... end one more” (listening pause for fills)

TX:

“number... (voices message 2) ... end no more”

RX:

“ROGER [73] W3RX”

TX:

“[THANKS 73] W3TX” If no calls are heard both stations return to the net. (Other stations may be dispatched to the stack to call one of the two for additional exchanges.)

 

RETURNING TO THE NET

FAILURE

If the stations fail to make contact within about half a minute or are unable to complete the assigned exchanges:

STN

Check back into the net by voicing “(full call sign) no joy”, “(full call sign) no (suffix)”, “(full call sign) lost (suffix)”, etc., if the assignment failed. An explanation may be added, or the NCS will ask for one.

 

SUCCESS

If the stations complete the assigned exchanges:

STN

Check back into the net by voicing “(call sign suffix) back” if the assignment was completed. NCS will acknowledge the return by simply repeating the suffix.
* It is also the responsibility of all stations involved in off-net exchanges to advise the net control of any correction in the number of messages passed, and of the TX station to re-list with the NCS any messages not passed.

LIAISONS

Liaisons returning from other nets check back in by voicing “(full call sign) from (net name)” followed by either “(no traffic)” or “(with traffic).” In the later case the NCS will ask the station to “LIST” its traffic.


BULLETIN(S) TO MULTIPLE STATIONS, ON AND OFF NET

BULLETINS: Single message(s) with one message number addressed to multiple recipients such as all American Red Cross liaisons or EOCs, etc.

·         RED items are for use off net. If the traffic is dispatched on net FREQ becomes HERE.

·         The TX station checks the frequency and initiates the call to establish the stack frequency. If the assigned frequency is busy the TX station moves in a direction away from the net to the first available clear frequency to initiate the stack. The TX station assumes the roll of NCS on the net frequency.

 

 

NCS:

W3TX (full calls of RX1, RX2, etc.) (FREQ) (BULLETIN)

TX:

TX GOING”;

RX #s:

RX1 GOING;” “RX2 GOING;” etc., in the order dispatched;

TX:

IS THE FREQUENCY IN USE?”… then:

 

“(RX 1) ready to copy?” (suffixes or tactical call signs may be used)

RX1

“ready”

TX:

“(RX 2) ready to copy?”

RX2

“ready” (TX polls until all RX stations ready.)

TX:

[W3TX] number... (voices message) ... end no more” (Multiple messages to the same addressee list may be transmitted in sequence.)

TX:

“(RX 1)?” (suffixes or tactical call signs may be used)

RX1

“ROGER (full call sign)”

TX:

“(RX 2)?”

RX2

 “ROGER (full call sign)” (TX polls until all RX stations acknowledge*.)

TX:

“[THANKS 73] W3TX” Fills may be settled with each recipient station as it is polled at the conclusion of the transmission sequence.

·         It is the responsibility of the TX station to note which addressed recipients received the message(s) and for servicing back to the originator any messages not delivered to the intended recipient list.

·         If no calls are heard all stations return to the net. (Other stations may be dispatched to the stack to call one of the stations involved for additional exchanges.)

·         It is also the responsibility of all stations involved in off-net exchanges to advise the net control of any correction in the number of messages passed, and of the TX station to re-list with the NCS any messages not passed.

 

BOOK TO MULTIPLE STATIONS, ON AND OFF NET

Common parts to all stations, variable parts to different receiving stations. This also includes bulletins with variable message numbers for each recipient station. The NCS has already assigned the messages to a specific list of recipients following the listing process. The TX station should make note of the call signs assigned to receive each particular address target, ask the NCS which stations will take each target address, or the NCS may indicate the target addresses to be taken by the stations during the dispatch sequence. This example shows a book for two stations. Each recipient, however, may be sent multiple variable message parts and there may be more than two recipient stations.

·         RED items are for use off net. If the traffic is dispatched on net FREQ becomes HERE.

·         The TX station checks the frequency and initiates the call to establish the stack frequency. If the assigned frequency is busy the TX station moves in a direction away from the net to the first available clear frequency to initiate the stack. The TX station assumes the roll of NCS on the net frequency.

NCS:

“W3TX (full calls of RX1, RX2, etc.) (FREQ) BOOK [OF TWO];” or
“W3TX (full calls of RX1 [address(es)], RX2 [address(es)], etc.) (FREQ) BOOK [OF TWO]”;

TX:

“TX GOING”;

RX #s:

“RX1 GOING;” “RX2 GOING;” etc., in the order dispatched; and at the stack:

TX:

“IS THE FREQUENCY IN USE?”… then:

 

“(RX 1) ready to copy?” (tactical call signs may also be used)

RX1

“ready”

TX:

“(RX 2) ready to copy?”

RX2

“ready” (TX polls until all RX stations ready.)

TX:

“(W3TX) book of [TWO] (voices common parts) ... break”

 

(Any of the RX stations may break here for a fill if needed.)

TX:

“(RX1)” (TX voices message number(s) and variable part(s) for RX1), then:

 

“break (RX1)?” (Signal for RX1 to settle fills and acknowledge message(s).)

RX1:

”ROGER (full call sign)” (RX1 is now excused from the stack and returns to net.)

TX:

(RX2) (TX voices message number(s) and variable part(s) for RX2) end book no more”, then:

 

(RX2)? (signal for RX2 to settle fills and acknowledge message(s));

RX2:

“ROGER (full call sign)”

TX:

“[THANKS 73] W3TX”

·         If no calls are heard the last two stations return to the net. (Other stations may be dispatched to the stack to call one of the two for additional exchanges.)

·         It is also the responsibility of all stations involved in off-net exchanges to advise the net control of any correction in the number of messages passed, and of the TX station to re-list with the NCS any messages not passed.

 

5. ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAMS

ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAMS

 

Group One -- For Possible "Relief Emergency" Use

TWENTY THREE

Report at once the accessibility and best

 

 

way to reach your location.

ONE

Everyone safe here. Please don't worry

TWENTY FOUR

Evacuation of residents from this area

TWO

Coming home as soon as possible.

 

urgently needed. Advise plans for help.

THREE

Am in _____ hospital. Receiving

TWENTY FIVE

Furnish as soon as possible the weather

 

excellent care.

 

conditions at your location.

FOUR

Only slight property damage

TWENTY SIX

Help and care for evacuation of sick and

 

here. Do not be concerned about

 

injured from this location needed at once.

 

disaster reports.

Emergency/priority messages originating from official sources

FIVE

Am moving to new location. Send

must carry the signature of the originating official.

 

no further mail or communication.

 

 

Will inform you of new address

Group Two -- Routine Messages

 

when relocated.

 

SIX

Will contact you as soon as

FORTY SIX

Greetings on your birthday and best

 

possible.

 

wishes for many more to come.

SEVEN

Please reply by Amateur Radio

FORTY SEVEN

Reference your message number ____ 

 

through the amateur delivering this

 

to _____ delivered on ____ at ____ UTC.

 

message. This is a free public

FIFTY

Greetings by Amateur Radio.

 

service.

FIFTY ONE

Greetings by Amateur Radio. This

EIGHT

Need additional _____ mobile or

 

message is sent as a free public service

 

portable equipment for immediate

 

by ham radio operators here at _____.

 

emergency use.

 

Am having a wonderful time.

NINE

Additional _____ radio operators

FIFTY TWO

Really enjoyed being with you. Looking

 

needed to  assist with emergency at

 

forward to getting together again.

 

this location.

FIFTY THREE

Received your _____. It's appreciated;

TEN

Please contact _____. Advise to

 

many thanks.

 

standby and provide further emergency

FIFTY FOUR

Many thanks for your good wishes.

 

information, instructions, or assistance.

FIFTY FIVE

Good news is always welcome. Very

ELEVEN

Establish Amateur Radio emergency

 

delighted to hear about yours.

 

communications with _____ on _____

FIFTY SIX

Congratulations on your _____, a most

 

MHz.

 

worthy and deserved achievement.

TWELVE

Anxious to hear from you. No word in

FIFTY SEVEN

Wish we could be together.

 

some time. Please contact me as soon

FIFTY EIGHT

Have a wonderful time. Let us know

 

as possible.

 

when you return.

THIRTEEN

Medical emergency situation exists here.

FIFTY NINE

Congratulations on the new arrival. Hope

FOURTEEN

Situation here becoming critical. Losses

 

mother and child are well.

 

and damage from _____ increasing

* SIXTY

Wishing you the best of everything on

FIFTEEN

Please advise your condition and what

 

_____.

 

help is needed.

SIXTY ONE

Wishing you a very Merry Christmas

SIXTEEN

Property damage very severe in this

 

and a Happy New Year.

 

area.

* SIXTY TWO

Greetings and best wishes to you for a

SEVENTEEN

REACT communications services also

 

pleasant _____ holiday season.

 

available. Establish REACT communica-

SIXTY THREE

Victory or defeat, our best wishes are

 

tion with _____ on channel _____.

 

with you.

EIGHTEEN

Please contact me as soon as possible 

SIXTY FOUR

Arrived safely at _____.

 

at ________.

SIXTY FIVE

Arriving _____ on _____. Please

NINETEEN

Request health and welfare report on

 

arrange to meet me there.

 

_____. (State name, address and

SIXTY SIX

DX QSLs are on hand for you at the

 

telephone number.)

 

_____ QSL Bureau. Send _____ self

TWENTY

Temporarily stranded. Will need some

 

addressed envelopes.

 

assistance. Please contact me at _____.

SIXTY SEVEN

Your message number ___ undeliverable

TWENTY ONE

Search and Rescue assistance is

 

because of _____. Please advise.

 

needed by local authorities here. Advise

SIXTY EIGHT

Sorry to hear you are ill. Best wishes for

 

availability.

 

a speedy recovery.

TWENTY TWO

Need accurate information on the extent

SIXTY NINE

Welcome to the _____. We are glad to

 

and type of conditions now existing at

 

have you with us and hope you will

 

your location. Please furnish this

 

enjoy the fun and fellowship of the

 

information and reply without delay.

 

organization.

 

 

* can be used for all holidays

ARL NUMBERS SHOULD BE SPELLED OUT AT ALL TIMES.

From ARRL FSD-3 (mod 5/05)

 

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_______________________________

Page last updated July 21, 2006, W3YVQ

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